A considerable amount of electric energy is used in lighting, refrigeration, cooking, water - heating and air conditioning. It is important to know how to operate these appliances more efficiently in order to reduce electricity consumption. Please, follow carefully the instructions given below and you can reduce your electrical bills considerably.
Household appliances such as refrigerators, deep freezers, air conditioners, TV etc. have become an integral part of modern life. The power rating of these equipment is not high but misuse could lead to energy waste.
Computers, printers and typewriters used in offices also have low energy rating. However, if left on when not in use for a long time, could lead to high energy consumption. Switch them off when you are not using them.
Avoid Doing These Things
1. Don’t put hot food in the refrigerator
2. Don’t put the refrigerator/freezer close to a hot object. Know what you want from the refrigerator / freezer before you open it
3. Replace incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps. Modern audio and video equipment such as TVs, stereo system and video cassette recorders are equipped with remote control system to ensure user comfort and convenience. They, however, consume power at the rate of 15-25 watts, when they are in the “Standby” mode. One such equipment can consume between ¢ 15,000 and ¢ 26,000.
4. To avoid excessive electricity consumption by these devices, turn off the plug when they are not being used. This also reduces the risk of fire.
Energy Checklist for Positive Action
1. Use low energy compact fluorescent lamps as replacements for traditional incandescent lamps.
2. Install low-flow shower heads and faucet aerators to reduce water usage and its associated energy for heating.
3. Ensure that hot water cylinders and hot water pipes are well insulated.
4. Ensure that thermostats for appliances are effective and set at moderate levels.
5. Use energy saving settings on refrigerators/freezers, air conditioners, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers
6. Reduce air conditioning costs by
a) Cleaning or replacing the filter once a month
b) Sealing air leaks through the doorways, window, wall cracks etc.
c) Planting shade trees and shrubs around the house especially on the west side
7. Replace ageing inefficient appliances, especially when they need major repairs, with the most energy-efficient models
1. Keep the thermostat set at a moderate level. Do not air-condition unused rooms
2. Provide effective shade for east and west windows. When possible, delay heat generating activities on hot days, until the cooler evenings.
3. Plant shade trees around the house.
4. Size air conditioners according to the area they cool.
5. Install air conditioner on the shady side of the room.
6. Buy a high-efficiency air conditioner for room air conditioner, the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) should be above 9; for central air conditioners look for one with Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ration (SEER) above 12. Models with multi-speed blower are generally the best in getting rid of high humidity.
7. Clean or replace the filter once a month. Maintain your air conditioner properly to maximize efficiency.
8. Reduced the cooling load by employing energy-efficient lighting, windows and U-value; low air leakage ratings; double panes; low coatings; low-conductivity gas-fill between panes; large unbroken glazing areas; and wood, vinyl or fibre glass flames.
Clothes Washers and Dryers
1. Wash at the lowest temperature that will still give effective cleaning. Always use cold water for rinsing. By pre-soaking heavily soiled clothes, a cooler wash temperature may be fine.
2. Load the washing machine to capacity when possible but do not overload. For smaller loads, match the water level to the size of the load.
3. Use short wash cycles for light soiling.
4. When buying a new washing machine, consider buying a front- loading (horizontal axis) machine which uses much less water than a top-loading (vertical axis) one. The front-loaders generally spin at a faster speed than top-loaders, thus saving on drying time. Front-Loaders have better overall washing performance.
5. When using a dryer, separate your clothes and dry similar types of clothes together.
6. Do not over dry clothes. Over drying wastes energy, causes shrinkage, generates static electricity and shortens fabric life. If the dryer has auto-dry setting, use it instead of the timer to avoid wasting energy.
7. Clean the dryer filter after each use. A clogged filter restricts air flow and reduces dryer performance.
8. In good weather, hang clothes outside and use totally free solar energy to do the drying.
1. Use the smallest pan necessary to do the job. Smaller pans require less energy.
2. Match the pan size to the element size. A 15cm pan on a 20cm burner will waste over 40% of the heat produced by the burner. The most efficient utensils are those with straight sides an flat bases because contact with the unit.
3. To prevent utensils from developing round bases do not immerse hot utensils in cold or lukewarm water.
4. The lids of all utensils should be tight-fitting.
5. Consider medium weight aluminum utensils with bright, shinny exteriors. They heat quickly and provide good heat distribution.
6. Keep the burner pans which accumulate oil, clean and shiny, so that they will be more effective at reflecting heat up to the utensil. Blackened burner pans absorb a lot of heat, reducing burner efficiency.
7. Turn off the burner just before the end of the cooking. The burner will continue to radiate heat for a little white.
8. To reduce cooking time, defrost frozen foods before cooking.
9. When the oven is being pre-heated for baking, keep the preheat time to a minimum and set the control at the temperature needed for the baking.
10. Food cooks more quickly and more efficiently when air can circulate freely. Thus when possible, stagger pans on upper and lower racks to improve air flow if you are baking in more than one pan.
11. Avoid overcooking, which not only spoils the taste and reduces nutritional value, but also wastes energy.
12. Use the full oven capacity when possible.
13. Do not open the oven door for frequent peeping. Each time the door is opened, a significant amount of heat escapes, food takes longer to cook and energy is wasted.
14. If you have a self-cleaning oven, use this feature only once in a while, and just after you have cooked a meal - that way the oven will still be hot and the cleaning feature will require less energy.
15. For a new cooker consider the one which incorporates a fan to circulate the hot air. This feature reduces energy consumption by 20% compared with the standard ones.
1. Try to position your dishwasher away from the refrigerator as the former produces heat and will increase energy consumption of the latter.
2. Most dishwashers have several different wash cycle selections. For a lightly soiled load, a Light wash’ cycle will save energy by using less water and operating for a shorter period of time. Hence use energy-saving cycles whenever possible.
3. Most of the new dishwashers now offer an energy-saying no-heat drying feature. Select this feature so that at the end of the rinse cycle, room air is circulated through the dishwasher by fans, rather than using an electric beating element to bake the dishes dry. If you have an older dishwasher that does not include the no-heat feature, you can turn the dishwasher off after the final rinse is completed and open the door to allow air drying.
4. Before putting dishes into the dishwater, scrape off food and empty liquids. If you must rinse dishes first, use cold water and the dishwashers will do the rest.
5. Wash only full loads. The dishwater uses the same amount of water whether it’s half full or completely full.
6. Load dishes according to manufacturer’s instructions. Completely fill the racks to optimize water and energy use, but allow water circulation for adequate cleaning.
1. Switch to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLS) which use five times less electric energy and last eight times longer than the ordinary incandescent lamps.
2. Place lambs at corners to reflect light from two walls instead of one.
3. Paint ceiling with white and walls in light colors to obtain brighter rooms without adding extra lamps.
4. Keep lamps and lighting fixtures clean. For the same amount of electric energy consumed, clean equipment offers 20-50 percent more light.
5. Install occupancy sensors that automatically run off lights when no one is in the room.
6. For outdoor lighting, use high-pressure sodium lamps which are very efficient. For lights which are left on all night, use light-sensing controls to turn the lights on at dusk and off at dawn.
7. Defrost the refrigerator/freezer when 6mm of ice accumulates.
8. Check the door gasket periodically against air leakage.
9. Clean the dust lint on the condenser coils behind or underneath the appliance once every 3 months.
10. Install a stabilizer to your system to guard against mains power fluctuations.
1. Allow hot foods to cool before putting them into the refrigerator or freezer.
2. Cover foods, especially liquids, else they will release moisture into the refrigerator compartment thus increasing energy use by the refrigerator.
3. A full freezer performs better than a nearly empty freezer. This can be especially true in the event of a power failure. If your freezer is not full, fill plastic containers with water and freeze them.
4. Adjust the thermostat control to a moderate level to keep the refrigerator compartment between 2°C and 3°C and freezer compartment between -18°C and 15°C.
5. The refrigerator or freezer door should be opened only when necessary. Mark items for quick identification and plan ahead regarding what is needed and remove it in one trip.
6. Locate the appliance away from the wall and also from direct sun rays and heat producing equipment such as a cooker.
1. Install a stabilizer to your television set if the power supply in your area fluctuates.
2. Turn off your set when no one is watching.
Make sure that people who are working with electricity are competent to do the job. Even simple tasks such as wiring a plug can lead to danger – ensure that people know what they are doing before they start.
More complicated tasks, such as equipment repairs or alterations to an electrical installation, should only be tackled by people with knowledge of the risks and the precautions needed.
You must not allow work on or near exposed live parts of equipment unless it is absolutely unavoidable and suitable precautions have been taken to prevent injury, both to the workers and to anyone else who may be in the area.
Suspect or faulty equipment is taken out of use, labeled ‘DO NOT USE’ and kept secure until examined by a competent person;
Where possible, tools and power socket-outlets are switched off before plugging in or unplugging.
Equipment is switched off and/or unplugged before cleaning or making adjustments.