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KUA DISASTER PLAN
1.  INTRODUCTION
A.  Summary of Kosrae State Policy
The Government of the State of Kosrae has decided to use its best efforts to protect, as far as possible, the people, the state infrastructure and the state economy from the effects of disasters of all kinds. It pursuit of this, the Government of the State of Kosrae has set forth the following policies:
1.      Introduce and maintain a disaster plan for the State of Kosrae to cover preparedness, response, relief and recovery measures.
2.      Encourage the concept of preparedness and self-reliance at the state and local Government levels throughout communities.
3.      Take necessary support measures in terms of public awareness and education, and appropriate training programs.
4.      Utilize to optimum effect the resources of the local and state Government to cope with disasters.
5.      The Governor of the state of Kosrae is responsible for making such provisions as may be reasonable and necessary for the security of the State including these measures required to mitigate the effects of disasters.
6.      Direction and control of disaster response operations at the State & Local government levels is the responsibility of the Governor.
B.  Disaster Threats
The disaster threats to the State of Kosrae and its municipalities comprise a wide range of nature and man-made disasters.  A summary of these threats follows:
Tropical Cyclones                               Droughts
(Typhoons & Tropical Storms)            Fires
Storm Surges                                       Lost at Sea
Epidemics                                           Floods & Landslides
Oil & Chemical Spills                         Environmental Pollution
Tsunamis                                             Earthquakes
Major Accidents                                 Volcanic Eruptions
II.  PURPOSE
The purpose of this plan is to define the measures to be taken by the Kosrae State Government to ensure that effective disaster preparedness; response, relief and recovery are carried out.  As the State Disaster Preparedness Plan, it aims to accomplish the followings:
§ Identify and assign responsibilities for planning and development of disaster preparedness programs that are designed to meet requirements at the State & Municipal governments.
§ Provide procedures for integration of programs and response to emergency situations at different levels of government and to ensure continuity in programs implementation.
§ Provides procedures for activating resources of the State Government during emergencies. The Governor, after declaring the state of emergency, may request assistance from the National Government upon his determination that the State’s resources are not sufficient to cope with the disaster.  The National Government’s assistance can be requested as explained in Part IV, of this plan.
§ Provide for procedures to request FEMA or other available foreign disaster assistance to supplement FSM National Government assistance to the stricken State.
§ Assign coordination of specific disaster-related programs to particular departments, agencies, and offices with requirements for development of training and public information programs.
III.  OBJECTIVES
A.  The objectives of the Plan are:
1.      To save lives and minimize damages and loss of property and resources
2.      To ensure appropriate levels of awareness and preparedness for disasters
3.      To ensure effective disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery
4.      To support the efforts to each State & its Municipal Governments to cope with disaster situations
5.      To ensure continuity of Government
IV.  MAJOR COUNTER DISASTER MEASURES
A.  Mitigation
Mitigation is the actions taken to prevent or reduce those adverse effects of disaster or hazards.  Mitigation measures are usually built-in or regulated into ongoing development projects.  For the purpose of this Plan, examples of mitigation include such measures as land use regulations, environmental protection regulations, housing vulnerability programs, and agricultural projects to plant disaster-resistant crops.
B.  Preparedness
Preparedness measures at the State level include:
1.      Planning the utilization of available resources and the minimization of dependencies upon outside assistance.
2.      Development of appropriate levels of public awareness & education programs
3.      Development of the department or agency operational plans (contingency plans) which designates staff members responsible for specific functions.
4.      Provide training of key personnel designated to specific functions to ensure successful implementation.
5.      Maintain and update the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
C.  Response
As a necessary element in the State’s endeavor to prevent or minimize the effects of disasters, specific declaration are issued to activate response procedures and to keep the public informed of potential disaster circumstances.
1.   Warnings on various conditions of a disaster are issued by the Governor.  Some warnings may come from outside sources (e.g. typhoon and tsunami) to the National Government before they are relayed to the Governor of the threatened State.
2.   After warning has been received and the disaster determined imminent, the Governor may execute necessary response activities ranging from boarding up to evacuation as appropriate.
3.   The Governor may declare a state of emergency based upon the prevailing disaster situation, and activate this plan to deeply State resources as warranted.
4.   The Governor may request disaster assistance from the FSM National Government and consequently the U.S. Federal assistance through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), after he has obligated State resources to respond to the disaster.  Requests for foreign disaster assistance must go through the National Government. Assistance from the US Government through FEMA may be requested in accordance with program requirements enumerated in the Annex II, “Guides to FEMA assistance.”  The Governor may request such assistance only after he has obligated available State resources constituting a reasonable contribution to the cost of the disaster.
5.   Distribution of relief supplies received from international assistance sources are controlled by the President and subject to the concurrent authorization with the Governor of the stricken State.
D.  Recovery
The recovery program usually centers on the regeneration of agricultural production, reconstruction of housing and infrastructure, and other long-term restoration efforts directed toward minimizing adverse impact of disasters.
1.      National Government may provide technical, manpower, supplies, equipment, and funding to the stricken State as authorized by the President.
2.      The President’s authorize Representative (PAR) ensures that projects funded by FEMA or any other foreign donor agency are implemented in accordance with applicable regulations.
V.  ORGANIZATION
A.  Governor
The Governor of the State of Kosrae is responsible for formulation of policies and controls the implementation of the State Disaster Preparedness Programs, National of international assistance where it is given. The Governor’s other responsibilities include:
§ Designate a State Disaster Coordinating Officer
§ Designate Command Designate stages of warning
§ Designate a Disaster Application Center & a Disaster Field Office
§ Mobilize the Emergency Task Force and initiate necessary property and life-saving measures (evacuations, mass care, etc.).
§ Orders damage assessment as soon as feasible and relay information to FSM President when National and FEMA assistance is anticipated.
§ If disaster is declared, applies for Federal assistance on behalf of the private non-profit agencies within his jurisdiction
§ Designate his representative to work with the President’s Authorized Representative (PAR) who is the FSM point of contact (POC) on all disaster related matters.  (This designation must be including in this certification, which goes with his request to the FSM President for the President’s and FEMA assistance).
2.  State Disaster Coordinating Officer (SDCO)
The SCDO implements tasks allocated by the Governor’s acts as Coordinator of the Governor’s Command Post and as the Governor’s designated representative.
§ Maintain and update the State Preparedness Plan.
§ Develop public awareness and training programs with other departments or agencies and requests funds for such programs.
§ Coordinate state sponsored training and public awareness programs with appropriate departments or agency heads.
§ Prepare requests to the National Government and foreign disaster assistance for submission.
§ Ensure the warnings are issued to public when warning stages are declared by the Governor.
§ Perform all other emergency coordination functions which may be necessitated by the demands of a given disaster or emergency situation.
3.  Governor’s Disaster Committee
All department or office heads constitute the Governor’s Disaster Committee, including this activity heads co-opted by the Governor to perform special assignments during a disaster.  This Committee serves as an advisory body to the Governor in the formulation of his policies and the coordination of the disaster response efforts.  This committee is made up of the following people:
                       The Governor              . . . .                 Chairman
                       Cabinet                        . . . .                 Members
                       State DCO                  . . . .                 Secretary
4.  Disaster Coordination Office
The agency of the State Government responsible for coordinating the implementation of all disaster-related matters under the direction of the Governor is the State Disaster Coordination Office.  During disasters, coordination will be carried out from the designated Command Post until the Governor issues an “all clear”, whereupon it will revert to its normal location – the Office of the State DCO. The counter disaster organization presently consists of the Governor/Lt. Governor, Governor’s Disaster Committee, State Disaster Coordinating Officer, and the designated local representative and the emergency task force.  The local chief executive represents his government and others designated.

5.  Organizational Chart:
              
   
Governor/Lt. Governor
   
          
 
                   

              
   
Governor’s Disaster Committee
   
          
              
   
State Coordinating Officer
   
          

VI.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
A.  Coordination
The Governor sets policies and provides direction and control of the disaster operation while the State DCO coordinates operational activities according to the assigned tasks listed in the Operational Checklists, unless otherwise preempted by the Governor.
1.      When the Governor declares an Alert (Condition II), department heads or their designed representatives will convene at the Command Post to plan appropriate response activities.
2.      The Department Heads report the specific activities being carried out by their respective departments or offices while the DCO maintains overall coordination of the operation and provide continuous and up-to-date briefings to the Governor for his decisions.
3.   Implementation of the Governor’s decisions becomes the responsibility of the State DCO.
4.   The State DCO through the Municipal representative does coordination of the disaster response efforts in the municipalities.  If National or FEMA assistance is likely, the local representative will provide reports of ongoing activities and events to the Governor via the SDCO every 3 hours until an “all clear” is issued.
5.   Requests for outside (foreign) assistance are coordinated by the FSM National Government.
Reports from the Governor to the FSM President must begin with the onset and continue every three (3) hours thereafter until an “all clear” is announced.  During the Recovery phase, all reporting continues until all work is completed and the final audit made.
B.  Warnings
Warnings can come from any level of government, depending on the nature of the disaster and its discovery.  However, warnings in cyclones generally come from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and warnings on tsunamis come from the Tsunami Warning Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Any warnings originating from outside the FSM, is usually directed to the Weather Services Observatory station located in Kolonia, Pohnpei, which is then relayed to the Governor of Kosrae for his information and action.
The Governor issues the official warning and makes the necessary declarations.
The following Stages of Warning are issued according to conditions.  These conditions are based upon the lead-time available before the disaster strikes, and are appropriate for threats, which usually have a slow onset, such as tropical cyclones.  Sudden impact disasters, such as plane crashes, or major fires, will negate these conditions and compel the activation of this Plan at the Impact Stage.
1.  Watch – Condition III.  A threat has identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours, given its current rate of development.
2.  Alert – Condition II.        The identified threat has been confirmed to strike within the next 24 to 12 hours, unless it diverts from its present course.
3.   Onset – Condition I.        The threat is imminent and will strike within 12 hours.
4.   Impact – The disaster has struck.
5.   Relief – The immediate aftermath of a disaster.
C.  Communications
All communications systems within the State of Kosrae can be commandeered for warning and emergency operations (as may be warranted by the destruction of designated facilities and equipment). The resources of the private sector may be utilized in a similar manner as necessary.  
Note: All facilities and equipment commandeered for emergency operations will be compensated in accordance with current market rate of leasing such facility or equipment.
D.  Functions of Departments of Officers
Functions assigned to each department or office is found in the Operational Checklists.  In addition, an Emergency Operations Model (EOM) depicts a miniature chart of the departmental assignments and is used for a quick reference in the event of a sudden impact disaster.  The Governor may also call upon the departments, offices, and/or agencies of the Kosrae State Government to perform functions in addition to those initially assigned, as the situation may require.
E.  Continuity of Government
To ensure governmental functioning at all times, elected and appointed officials of the Kosrae State Government are responsible for developing Contingency Plans that ensure a line of succession whereby each department, office, or agency provides measures for safekeeping of vital records, emergency plans and procedures, utility systems maps, line of succession documents and lists of regular and auxiliary personnel, codes, statutes, constitutions, ordinances court records, official proceedings, land deeds, financial records, and others National documents or archives.
F.  Resources
Resources of the Kosrae State Government likely to be useful in a disaster or emergency operation are maintained by each department or office and are filed and updated with the State DCO.
VII.  IMPLEMENTATION
In the process of implementing this Plan, there is a need to integrate activities throughout the State and with the National Government in order to minimize duplication of efforts and thereby reduce the costs of disasters.  It is also important to ensure that across the whole spectrum of disaster activity, ranging from preparedness to recovery, the efforts of the State and the National Government are compatible.
A. Phase of Implementation
1.   Phase I – Preparedness
A period of no active disaster in which preparedness are made for such an eventuality.  During this phase, the following activities need to be carried out;
§ Maintain and update this plan
§ Develop contingency plan with established department line of succession
§ Develop public education, awareness, and training programs
§ Establish and maintain a Command Post
§ Identify and inspect potential disaster shelters for safety reasons
§ Provisions of health & sanitation facilities in identified shelters
§ Plan and prepare evacuation known vulnerable communities
§ Establish communication and warning systems
§ Assess Vulnerability
§ Monitor development projects
§ Provision of emergency back-up systems
§ Maintain environmental protection measures
2.   Phase II – Warning
a.   Watch- Condition III.  The following tasks need to be carried out
§ Open Command Post
§ Alert Governor’s Disaster Committee and other appropriate officials
§ Monitor the threat
§ Provide warning to appropriate segments of the public (e.g. small crafts warnings, etc.)
§ Tests communications & warning systems
b.   Alert – Condition II.  Tasks to be performed
§ Mobilize Governor’s Disaster Committee at Command Post
§ Issue warnings and notify the general public
§ Notify the FSM President
§ Evacuate (if necessary)
§ Open identified shelters
§ Close down schools
§ Secure & board up facilities & homes
§ Ensure sufficient emergency stock (fuel, etc.)
§ Radio station goes on 24 hours operation
§ Announce “all clear” if and when appropriate
3.  Phase III. Operations
a.  Onset – Condition I.  Threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.  Carry out the following:
§ Evacuate threatened areas
§ Conduct (and transport if possible) people to shelters
§ Provide health & sanitation measures
§ Establish & announce curfew
§ Begin situation reports to the FSM President
b.  Impact – the disaster has struck
§ Rescue & initial treatment of victims
           
c.   Relief – The period immediately after a disaster, the duration of which is to be determined by the Governor (see Cessation below), during which emergency operations are taken
§ Restore essential services
§ Conduct and transport people when necessary
§ Provide health and sanitation measures
§ Provide food & shelter for the needy
4.  Phase IV.  Recovery
The period following a disaster is devoted to the rehabilitation of the sick and injured and rebuilding and reconstruction of damaged or destroyed facilities and other properties.  The following tasks should be carried out immediately after the completion of the emergency work.
§ Submission of requests for National & international assistance
§ Request for temporary housing assistance
§ Establish Disaster Field Office and Disaster Application Centers
§ Assign personnel’s to assist in preparation of Damage Survey Reports (DSR’s).
§ Assign personnel’s to assist in inspection/verification of damages to private homes & facilities.
§ Coordinate recovery and rehabilitation projects in the state and the municipalities according to State and National Disaster Preparedness Plan.
5.  Activation
These procedures are activated automatically in the case of a sudden impact disaster; otherwise the Governor activates them.
6.  Cessation
A state of emergency (and emergency operations) ceases when the Governor issues and Executive Order or Directive to that effect. No state of emergency shall exceed a period of thirty (30) days unless authorized by Joint Resolution of the State Legislature.  The State Legislature may terminate a state of emergency at any time by Joint Resolution (PL 7-38).
VIII.    REVIEW & ANALYSIS
A.  Review and analysis are important parts of preparedness and therefore necessary components of this Plan.
1.  Functions
a.  Each department, office or agency should review and analyze its own Contingency Plan and revise as appropriate.
b.  Recommended modifications or changes to the Contingency Plans must be copied to this Plan every time such changes are approved through review and analysis.
2.  Aspect to be covered by review should include:
§ Status of plans and preparedness communications
§ Warning
§ Activation arrangements
§ Surveys, Assessments and Reporting
§ National and International support
§ Assessment of public awareness programs
           
IX.  SUPPORT MEASURES
A. Public Awareness & Training Programs
§ Each department, office or agency should investigate possible steps that can be progressively taken to extend the scope of the existing limited programs of public education and awareness.
§ Training of key personnel is necessary to maintain program efficiency and ensure successful implementation at all levels of government.
X.  AUTHORIZATION & REFERENCES
A.    The Plan is authorized by Public Law 7-38, PL 1-6, (and other applicable FSM Laws) and with applicable US Federal Assistance supported and authorized by the US PL 93-288, the Disaster Relief Act of 1974.
B.     A list of definitions (Glossary) applicable to this Plan is contained in Annex A.
This plan has been reviewed and authorized for implementation by
____________________________                            ___________________
The Honorable Rensley A. Sigrah                                               Date
                Governor
            State of Kosrae
STATE OF KOSRAE
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
1.  PURPOSE
The purpose of this checklist is to provide a quick and easy reference to the actions to be undertaken by the State Disaster Coordinating Officer and the Department Heads in the event of an emergency or disaster.
2.  ACTIVATION
These procedures are activated automatically in case of sudden impact disasters or emergencies (e.g. plane crash). Otherwise the Governor activates them.
3.  CONTROL & COORDINATION
§     Overall direction of disaster preparedness & operations:  Governor
§     Coordinator of counter – disaster planning & implementation State DCO
§     Coordination of departmental disaster activities:  Department Head
4.  DISASTER TASKS (See Departments’ checklists).
Those departments & offices not listed should concentrate on securing their own facilities, equipment and records and the Governor may assign other functions as.
5.  RESOURCES
All available resources as obligated by the Governor, or by the Department Head in fulfilling his department’s assigned responsibilities. (Also see, attached Resources Inventory)
6.  CESSATION OF OPERATIONS
Disaster operations cease when directed by the Governor.
7.  DEBRIEFING & REVIEW
Each department or agency reviews its own operation, immediately following cessation of operations, and determine the needs for modification of contingency plans, operational procedures etc., and propose recommendations to the SDCO for revision of operational checklist, procedures, or the plan.
This checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as an aid to the required preparations and operations during a given disaster.  Each department, or agency is required to update and maintain its operational checklist to ensure its current status.
______________________________                                 ____________________
  The Honorable Rensley A. Sigrah                                                         Date
                       Governor
                  State of Kosrae
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
State Disaster Coordinating Officer
The Governor provides the direction and specifies the actions to be taken during each disaster condition in accordance with the provisions of the Kosrae State Disaster Preparedness Plan.  The State Disaster Coordinating Officer coordinates execution of actions authorized or assigned to departments of agencies by the Governor.
PREPAREDNESS STAGE
(No identified threats within 48 hours.  A time of preparation and readings for disasters or emergencies).
§     Update and maintain State Disaster preparedness Plan.
§     Ensure that each department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate and that specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records are assigned and recorded.
§     Coordinate with other department heads the development of required contingencies, assignment of key staff to emergency functions, training and education programs for public awareness, and other duties as assigned.
§     Monitor existing disaster – funded projects to ensure compliance to established timetables, and periodically reports projects status to the FSM PDC.
§     Ensure establishment of communications and warning systems and conduct periodic testing to ensure efficiency.
§     Ensure designation of a Command Post before any disaster.
§     Coordinate with other departments or agencies periodic assessment of vulnerability and propose recommendations to rectify existing problems.
§     Work with Municipal Chief executives to establish a disaster response and operational program in the municipalities.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – condition Three – at threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Notifies the Governor as soon as threat is identified.
§     Inform department heads and other key personnel requiring advance notification.
§     Monitor the threat and determine disaster conditions and inform the Governor for his decisions.
§     Test communications and warning systems.
§     Alert Governor’s Disaster Committee of the possible activation of the State Disaster Preparedness Plan should condition two be declared.
§     Notify municipal chief executives to take necessary precautions against the identified threat.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Prepare Governor’s declaration of condition Two and announce activation of the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Mobilize the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Ensure continuous update of disaster related information to the general public inclusive of instructions on preparation for disaster.
§     Coordinate with all department heads the execution of their assigned emergency tasks.
§     Initiate communications with FSM and continues until an “all clear” is issued.
§     Coordinate other emergency duties as appropriate.
§     Notify municipal chief executives of the activation of State Plan and the need to implement appropriate measures.
OPERATIONS STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     Monitor disaster and continue coordination of all ongoing activities and continue reports to the Governor
§     Perform operational tasks as directed by the Governor.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Coordinate all emergency activities in accordance with established priorities.
§     Advise the Governor on each department or agency operations and propose deployment of resources and personnel according to needs and priorities.
§     Continue situation reports to the FSM President.
§     Coordinate with the Governor his Disaster Committee the needs for search & rescue and/or evacuation of stricken areas.
§     Maintain communications with municipal offices to monitor disaster conditions and situation reports.
RELIEF – emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
                       
§     Coordinate all emergency operations with the Governor and his Disaster Committee and establish relief priorities.
§     Deploy designated emergency teams to assist disaster victims.
§     Prepare the Governor’s request for a combined damage assessment (FEMA/FSM/STATE) immediately after the disaster.
§     Manage all relief activities.
§     Notify municipalities of the established relief priorities and provide guideline on necessary activities.
§     Prepare a state of emergency declaration for Governor’s signature.
§     Coordinate arrival of FEMA and FSM staff to assist in the damage assessment or other needed emergency work.
§     In the event of a declaration by the President of the United States, the SDCO is the contact person for the State, as the liaison between the State, FSM National Government, and FEMA in all disaster-related requirements.  (See FEMA Guides for details).
This checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
________________________________                    ________________________
   State Disaster Coordinating Officer                                             Date
OPERTIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Administration & Finance
PREPAREDNESS STAGE  (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and safekeeping of vital records.
§     Provide training for personnel assigned to keep disaster – related accounts, incorporating procedures used by FEMA.
§     Follow up on the status of existing disaster programs to ensure that required procedures are adhered to and funds are expended appropriately.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect that the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Director should notify key staff and brief them per their assigned responsibilities.
§     Review FEMA accounting procedures.
§     Provide reminder to other Department Heads regarding requirements for documentation of all disaster – related expenses.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role in the activation of the State Disaster Preparedness Plan per the need for securing facilities and vital records.
§     Director to attend Governor’s Disaster Committee meeting at the designated Command Post.
OPERATIONS STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     Performs other functions as may be assigned by the Governor.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Establish disaster accounts per the request of the SDCO.
RELIEF – emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Monitor and mange expenditures
§     Control issuance of funds obligated for disaster operations.
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
_____________________________              _______________________
Director                                                        Date
Department of Administration & Finance
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Health Services
PREPAREDNESS STAGE  (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records.
§     Develop & maintain Hospital Emergency Procedures
§     Maintain current assessment of health vulnerability especially epidemics and other disastrous outbreaks.
§     Conduct health & sanitation inspections of any designated shelters.
§     Support disaster preparedness in health education projects.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Director places key staff on standby.
§     Check medical supplies and equipment for possible use during disasters.
§     Notify Health Aids and other supplementary personnel in the communities.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Ensure sufficiency of fuel for back-up generators and emergency vehicles.
§     Secure facilities and vital records.
§     Establishes communications with facilities in rural communities.
§     Provision designated shelters with emergency medical supplies.
OPERATIONS STAGE:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     Assign first-aid personnel to designated shelters.
§     Perform operational tasks as directed by the Governor.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
Manage mass casualties (Initial treatment of victims, first-aid, transport to health facilities, redistribution to other facilities when necessary).
RELIEF – emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Assess health needs
§     Epidemiological surveillance and disease control.
§     Environmental health management.
§     Determine food and nutritional needs.
§     Mange health relief supplies.
This checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
________________________________                    _______________________
Director                                                                       Date
       Department of Health Services
OPERTIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Public Works
PREPAREDNESS STAGE (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records.
§     Ensure development and implementation of hazard mitigation measures specifically those required by FEMA.
§     Provide coordination and inspection of all existing projects funded as a result of a disaster, and provide periodic project status reports which are required for release of approved funds.
§     Designate and train department personnel to be involved in damage assessment.  (Request the assistance of the State DCO).
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Alert key personnel and brief them on department’s assigned responsibilities.
§     Check power, water and other utilities to ensure provision of emergency supplies.
§     Ensure serviceability of available transports and fuel supply.
§     Inspect designated shelters to ensure readiness.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Make available transports (vehicles) for evacuation and necessary movements of personnel, equipment and supplies.
§     Monitor water, sewage, and power systems.
§     Secure facilities and vital records.
OPERATION STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     All designated emergency personnel should be at their assigned stations.                
§     Monitor disaster conditions and performs emergency activities are required or per the Governor’s instructions.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Monitor disaster conditions and maintain accessibility of roads, bridges, etc. (where possible), and ensure public safety at all times through removal of debris which may constitute hazards.
RELIEF – Emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Removal of debris to make roads accessible.
§     Restoration of essential public services (power, water, roads, airports, etc.)
§     Re-establish air and sea navigational aids.
§     Carry out required damage assessment for Governor’s request for assistance.
§     Assist in the provision of temporary shelter for the homeless.
§     Perform other operational tasks as assigned.
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
_______________________________          ________________________
Director                                                                                   Date
Department of Public Works
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Commerce and Industry
PREPAREDNESS STAGE (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records.
§     Introduce & maintain necessary hazard mitigation measures in authorized projects to ensure protection against disaster impact.
§     Develop public orientation an education projects to increase awareness in methods of regenerating production following a disaster.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Dispatch assigned staff to take necessary measures in securing government sponsored development projects.
§     Place designated emergency teams on standby (specifically marine, agriculture & forestry divisions).
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Mobilize emergency teams to assist is carrying out assigned responsibilities.
§     Secure department’s facilities and vital records.
§     Inform major producers to take protective measures to minimize damages to crops or other development projects.
§     Assist with other emergency activities.
OPERTIONS STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     Perform emergency duties as assigned.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Monitor the disaster and assist other departments in carrying out necessary emergency activities.
RELIEF – emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Prepare assessment of damages to resources (marine, agriculture, and forestry).
§     Assist in clearance of debris or other appropriate emergency duties.
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
___________________________________              _________________________
                       Director                                                                      Date
Department of Commerce and Industry
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Agriculture, Land and Fisheries
PREPAREDNESS STAGE (No identified threats)
§     Ensuring that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital record.
§     Introduce & maintain necessary hazard mitigation measures in authorized projects to ensure protection against disaster impact.
§     Develop public orientation an education projects to increase awareness in methods of regenerating production following a disaster.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH- Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Dispatch assigned staff to take necessary measures in securing government sponsored development projects.
§     Place designated emergency teams on stanby (specifically marine, agriculture & forestry divisions).
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Mobilize emergency teams to assist is carrying out assigned responsibilities.
§     Secure department’s facilities and vital records.
§     Inform major producers to take protective measures to minimize damages to crops or other development projects.
§     Assist with other emergency activities.
OPERATION STATES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours
                       
§     Perform emergency duties as assigned.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck
§     Monitor the disaster and assist other departments in carrying out necessary emergency activities.
RELIEF - emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Prepare assessment of damages to resources (marine, agriculture, and forestry).
§     Assist in clearance of debris or other appropriate emergency duties.
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
_________________________________                  ___________________________
Director                                                                       Date
       Department of Agriculture, Land & Fisheries
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
Department of Education
PREPAREDNESS STAGE  (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records.
§     Develop and promote public education programs which will increase public awareness of the adverse impacts of disasters.
§     Inclusion of a disaster preparedness segment in school curriculum.
§     Assist the SDCO & Public Works Director in identifying school facilities which can be used as disaster shelters.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and could affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Notify principals of schools designated as shelters the possibility of using said facilities should condition two be declared.
§     Place on standby other key personnel whose assistance may be required should the disaster becomes more eminent.  (Bus drivers, shelter managers, cooks, etc.)
§     Ensure emergency provisions for vehicles and back-up generators.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
           
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Close down schools and release students to their homes.
§     Secure facilities and ensure safety of boarders (in shelters or dormitories).
§     Work with Director of Health Services to provision shelters with emergency medical supplies.
OPERATIONS STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     All designated personnel should be at duty stations.
§     Perform other duties as assigned.
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Monitor disaster conditions and assist with needed emergency activities.
RELIEF – emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
§     Mobilize trained personnel (cooks) to assist in the mass feeding and mass care activities.
§     Where feasible, provide transportation for emergency evacuations etc.
§     Assist in the provision of emergency communications.
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
__________________________                                ___________________________
                  Director,                                                                            Date
      Department of Education
OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST
Office of Community Affairs
PREPAREDNESS STAGE  (No identified threats)
§     Ensure that Department’s assigned disaster functions are current and accurate.
§     Staff & personnel are assigned specific responsibilities regarding line of succession and preservation of vital records.
§     Development of emergency contingencies for different types of disasters (storms, epidemics, major accidents, etc) with personnel assigned to specific functions.
§     General readiness of department to respond to disasters.
§     Develop & educate the public for use of special warnings for emergencies.
WARNING STAGES:
WATCH – Condition Three – a threat has been identified and affect the State within 48 to 24 hours.
§     Staff & personnel placed on standby.
§     Assign staff to designated Task Forces.
§     Other assigned duties as appropriate.
ALERT – Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§     Director coordinates department’s role when the Governor activates the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§     Attend meeting of the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§     Mobilize emergency Task Force.
§     Secure department facilities and vital records.
§     Performs other task as required.
OPERATION STAGES:
ONSET – Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§     Perform emergency duties as assign
IMPACT – the disaster has struck.
§     Monitor the disaster and assist other department in carry out necessary emergency activities.
RELIEF – Emergency operations (mass care & feeding, temporary shelters, etc.)
The checklist is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific guideline on the department’s assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
_____________________________             _______________________
             Director                                                      Date
Office of Community Affairs
Annex A
GLOSSARY
Alert.  A condition during which the Governor of the State warns the people to take precautionary measures in response to a threat which may strike the State.  In the case of tropical cyclone, this condition is usually issued when the threat is about 12 to 24 hours away.
All clear.  When the warning for a threat has been issued, the Governor needs to announce the all clear to the public if the threat dissipates.
Command Post.  This is the governor’s Emergency Operations Center from which he directs emergency operations.  A the moment none of the Stets have facilities built specifically for this purpose, but it is up to the Governor to designate such a place in case of a disaster and inform the members of the Disaster Organization accordingly.
Damage Assessment.  The process of inspecting, estimating, and evaluating the extent of damages incurred during a disaster with specific emphasis on the impact of these damages on the lives of the people.
Designated Shelters.  Shelters which have been designated by the governor for use by the public in the event of a disaster.  When such shelters have been designated, it becomes the responsibility of Government to ensure that they are structurally safe for such purpose and that health and sanitation facilities are provided during use.
Disaster.  Usually a catastrophic happening, which disrupts day-to-day life patterns and causes suffering among the people of t h e, affected area.  Such a happening is usually a natural occurrence which becomes a disaster-when it adversely impacts peoples’ policies.
Disaster Organization.  The organization of the State or the National Government responsible for programs of preparedness and the operations in response to the threat of or the occurrence of a disaster.
Drought.  A prolonged period of dry weather which usually result in serious water shortage for people living on small islands which depend almost entirely on rainwater for their supply.
Earthquake.  Distortion and vibrations of the land in an area caused by slippage and breakage of rocks under the earth which can cause severe damage to buildings and infrastructure.
Emergency.  Any natural of man-made disasters occurring within a state which may require FSM National or the US Federal Emergency Assistance to supplement state and municipal efforts to save lives, protect property and public safety, or to avert or lessen the threat of disaster.
Emergency Task Forces.  Teams recruited from Government personnel for their expertise in specific areas to assist in the disaster operations.  These teams’ activities are coordinated by the SDCO under the supervision of their departmental director or an assigned supervisor.
Epidemic.  An outbreak of a contagious disease in a community.  Such occurrence had happened in the islands in recent times and may happen again.  The islands are susceptible to contagious disease such as cholera, typhoid fever, influenza, etc.
Federal Government.  The Government of the United States of America, or any of its disaster assistance programs administered by  the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
FEMA.  The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency which is responsible for assistance to disaster areas when the President of the United States has declared such a place a disaster area.  By Compact agreement this assistance from the United States still exists with the FSM.
Governor’s Disaster Committee.  The committee, which acts as an advisory body to the Governor during disasters.  This committee is usually comprised of the members of the Governor’s Cabinet.
Hurricane.  Common name for tropical cyclone (see Tropical Cyclone)
Impact.  This is the moment that a disaster strikes and perhaps still raging.  Very little can be done at this time except to save lives wherever possible.
Local Disaster Headquarters.  The Command Posts at the Municipality level from which the Local Representatives run emergency operations.  Usually at the Municipal Office which must be secure from the threat and provisioned with the needed communication systems to maintain communication with the Governor’s Command Post during disasters.
Local Representative.  An officer in each Municipality or Outer-Island designated by the Governor to coordinate disaster activities for that area under the supervision of the SDCO.  If a disaster befalls an area, which has not had a designated Local Representative, the Local Government’s Chief Executive automatically becomes the Local Representative.
Major Disaster.  Any natural or man-made disasters occurring within a state, which in the determination of the Governor, causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistances from the FSM National Government, US Federal Government, and other international sources to supplement efforts and available resources of the stricken state.
Mitigation.  Measures taken to lessen or prevent the effects of a disaster threat to the State. Such measures may include the passing of building codes to lessen the effects of major fires, earthquakes and cyclones, the construction of levees to prevent flooding, public education programs, etc.
Municipal Government.  The government of any of the political subdivisions of a state, which are recognized by law as municipalities.
National Disaster.  A disaster situation where the whole of FSM, or the major part of it, is so badly affected by disaster that most of the nation’s resources, and possibly assistance from outside, are needed to provide immediate response and relief.
National Government.  The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.
Onset. The stage of alert, which immediately precedes the impact of a disaster.  In the case of a tropical cyclone, this is usually declared when the cyclone is less than 12 hours away.
Operational Checklists.  Each department of the State Governments has the responsibility of maintaining operational checklists, which list in concise form activities, which the department must cover in the event of a disaster warning through the operations.
Operational Plans.   Each department must develop its own operational plan, which assigns tasks listed in the Operational Checklists to ensure they are performed.
and very pronounced rotary circulation, wind speed of 75 miles per hour or more.
When the winds develop into a cyclone it stands upon the sea or whatever island is in its way like a whirlwind of Operations. The activities of the Disaster Organization, which commences with the onset of a disaster ends with the commencement of recovery efforts.
Phases of disasters.    To ease coordination and operations for the Disaster Organization, disasters are broken down in to sequential phases as follows: Preparedness, Warning, Operations and Recovery.
Preparedness.  Organized efforts specifically designed to minimize the effects of disasters on the lives of people and ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
Recovery.  The process of restoring a state of normalcy in the lives of the people or the community who had suffered from a disaster.
Relief.  The process of alleviating the conditions of suffering resulting from a disaster and assisting the victims of disasters who are unable to help themselves.
Response.  The activities undertaken by the Disaster Organization starting from a “watch” through “recovery” in the event of a disaster.
State of Emergency.  A certain emergency or disaster which exists in an area and has to be dealt with in a manner required by existing laws or procedures.
State Government.  Any of the four State Governments of the Federated States of Micronesia.
State Operational Checklist.  Chart of all disaster operational functions assigned to departments, offices, and agencies.  This State checklist provides a quick reference for specific operational tasks as well as those departments, offices, and agencies assigned to perform those specific tasks during the different phases of a given disaster.
Storm Surges.  Larger than normal waves which arrive at an island as a result of a tropical storm or cyclone nearby (maybe two hundred miles away).  Such waves are particularly dangerous to low islands or coastal areas especially during high tide.  If there is a low exasperate the situation.
Sudden Impact Disasters.  Disasters, which strike without warning, such as fires, plane crashes, earthquakes, oil spills, etc,
Tropical Cyclone.      The general term for all cyclonic wind circulations originating over tropical waters, classified by form and intensity as “tropical disturbance” – very slight circulatory movement on the surface, “tropical depression” – some rotary movement with winds up to 40 miles per hour, “tropical storm” – distinct rotary circulation with wind speed of 40 to 70 miles per hour, and “tropical cyclone” (typhoon or hurricane) – wind speed of more that 75 mile per hour.
Typhoon.  Common name for tropical cyclone (see Tropical Cyclones).
Warning.  Some threats can be identified before they strike, such as tropical cyclones and tsunamis. The Governor of the State can warn the general public when the State is threatened through the radio broadcast station, the Police and any other means available to him.  Warnings to the public usually start with an “alert” which is issued when the threat is 12 to 24 hours away in the case of a cyclone.  The alert is followed by “onset” when the thereat is eminent and will strike within 12 hours.
Watch.  This is a condition is usually declared when a threat ha been identified, and may possible affect the area.
DISASTER THREATS
The islands and atolls of the Federated States of Micronesia are subject to at all times of the year the destructions of natural disaster such as tropical cyclones (typhoons and storms), tsunamis (seismic sea waves), floods, fires, environmental pollution, possibly earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and other natural and man-made causes.
Tropical Cyclones
The most frequently occurring type of disasters in the FSM are the tropical cyclones and are considered the major threat to the islands and the people of the Federated States of Micronesia.  Tropical cyclones often sweep through the islands with strong destructive winds, generating high seas, torrential rains, and wave action and flooding.  “Tropical cyclone” is the general term for all winds, which move, in a circular fashion originating over tropical waters.  The circular nature of these winds is usually not perceptible to the laymen, but readily noticeable and easily recorded and tracked by meteorological technicians using highly technical equipment specifically developed for this purpose.  As used in this area, tropical cyclone are classified into four different types as indicted below:
Tropical Disturbance:  rotary circulation of the wind is slight or absent at the surface of the ocean but sometimes better developed aloft, no strong winds.  This is common in the tropics.
Tropical Depression: some rotary circulation at the surface, and the winds may reach a speed of 39 miles per hour.
Tropical Storm:  distinct rotary circulation at the surface, and the winds are strongly developing and may reach wind speeds of 40 to 70 miles an hour.
Typhoons/Hurricanes:  Strong awful violence.  On the average, its great spiral covers an area some 100 miles in diameter with winds greater that 175 miles per hour, and spreads gale-force winds greater than 175 miles per hour, and spread gale-force winds (40 mph or greater) over a 400 miles diameter area.
At lower levels, near sea level, where the cyclone is most intense, winds on the rim of the storm follow a wide pattern, like the slower currents around the edge of a whirlpool; and, the center of the vortex, the “eye” The outer rim of the storm has light winds, perhaps not more than 30 miles per hour; within 30 miles of the center, winds may have velocities exceeding 150 miles per hour – and more than 200 per hour in the most memorable ones.
Winds flow toward the low pressure in the warm, comparatively calm core.  There, converging air is whirled upward by convection to an altitude of about 40,000 feet. The thick, heavy cloud wall releasing heavy rain and enormous quantities of heat energy marks this spiral.  It has been estimated that the condensation heat energy release by a cyclone in one day often is the equivalent of that released by fusion of 400 220 – megaton hydrogen bombs.
At the center, surrounded by a band in which the strong vertical circulation is greatest, is the core – the “eye” of the cyclone.  On the average, the diameter of the eye is about 14 miles, although diameters of 25 miles are not unusual.  When the eye of a cyclone comes across islands, the wind speed decreases rapidly to about 15 miles per hour.  When the eye passes the wind will increase suddenly to the maximum, but this time it will come from a different direction because of the circular nature of the cyclone.
The speed with which the whole cyclone travels across the ocean varies greatly, but is comparatively sloe, about the same speed a ship would travel.  Its direction is also unpredictable and erratic.  Cyclones have been known to loop back and hit the same place twice. The life span of cyclones varies but has been averaged out to about 10 days.
Floods & Landslides
Heavy rainfall continuous over a period of several hours or days quickly creates disaster conditions in areas prone to landslide and in lowlands with poor drainage.  River flooding is a threat in high islands with rivers.  All islands are susceptible to shoreline flooding and water damage resulting from torrential rains particularly those accompanying a tropical cyclone.
High islands are susceptible to landslides especially on hillsides.  Sitting houses on hillsides should be subject to preventive measures and standardized building codes.
Earthquakes
The Earth’s crust, making up the continents and oceans of the world, floats on the hot and liquid material, which make up the inner layer of the planet.  The crust has broken up into huge segments (million of square miles) called tectonic plates which drift slowly (a few inches a year) in different directions – where these plates meet, one would slip under the other and turn into molten material under the crust, lines of weakness called geological faults are created.
The slow build-up and sudden release of strain within masses of rock along the fault Line and the breaking of rocks under strain produce earthquakes.  Fault movement may be horizontal, vertical or some combination of the two.  Vibrations may cause earth distortions and widespread damage to buildings and other structures many miles from the epicenter (point of the earth’s surface beneath which the first rupture on the fault occurred).
It is rare that an earthquake of any consequence occurs without after-shocks, which tend to be smaller and smaller.  However, there is no ironclad rule, which guarantees that aftershocks will be smaller.  Sometimes a large shock will be followed by another large shock.
Tsunami (Seismic Sea Wave)
Submarine earth movements such as earthquakes, landslides or volcanic explosions cause tsunamis.  Not all submarine earth movements cause tsunamis however, an often it is not known whether a tsunami was generated by such a movement until it strikes somewhere.
When generated, a tsunami travels outward from the epicenter in all directions at a speed, which may reach 600 miles per hour.  In deep ocean areas the wave may be only a few feet high from the through to the crest but its foot (height) would be trailing the ocean floor.  A ship would not notice such a wave at sea or from an airplane.  As the wave approaches shallow water it decreases in speed but increase rapidly in height.  Fortunately for many of our islands, we don’t have the gradual build-up of the ocean floor, which is typical of continental landmasses, to cause the rising of these waves to their full fury.  However, we can still be affected by these waves and at times their effects may be devastating.
The first wave is not always the most severe.  The danger may last for several hours and sometimes several days elapse before the sea returns to normal.  A wave may have small effect in one locality and be destructive in another.
Fires
Bush and grassland fires in less populated areas of the high islands, backed by strong, seasonal prevailing winds may get out of control.  Limited access to these areas would add to the disaster possibility.  Fires starting in congested urban area could result in a major disaster should it become uncontrollable.
Storm Surges
When there is a tropical cyclone in the vicinity of an island (two hundred miles or so), the waves generated by the storm may hit the island in the form of large waves (fifteen feet and up) – storm surges. This condition is sometimes aggravated by tow conditions:  (a) high tide, and (b) a low-pressure belt, which may exist over the island.  The high tide will, of course, raise the level of the sea around the island.  The low pressure will also raise the level of the ocean.  These conditions together may cause extensive damage to low lying islands and in some instances have caused the total inundation of coral atolls. (e.g. Majuro island in 1980)
Epidemics
Several instances of epidemics have occurred in the FSM in recent years, one of the most memorable was the cholera outbreak in Truk.  The Health Services departments in the States are in constant surveillance for these occurrences, and are equipped to handle them.  In the event of large-scale outbreaks and the States find themselves unable to cope, they can seek assistance through the National Government, to request the assistance of the United States Communicable Disaster Center in Atlanta, Georgia or the assistance of the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO).
Major Accidents
Major accidents which Constitute an emergency or a disaster would most likely be those involving overwhelming losses both in terms of human lives as well as property losses, such a airplane crashes and ship collisions.  Most of the airfield approaches in the FSM are over water and the runaways are not too long either.  Logistic support requires heavy and continuing ship traffic, which thereby increases the possibility of ship collision.
Environmental Pollution
With the increase in shipping and air traffic compounded by the expanded appetite for imported products, the environment is rapidly becoming cluttered with the discarded residues from this influx of modern innovations.  Water and air pollution are no longer just potential treats but realities to be confronted and resolved before it is too late.  Dumping of bilge water (mixture of petroleum by-products) around the vicinity of docks throughout the FSM has caused significant loss of marine lives (including coral reefs) in those areas.  There are agencies within the State Governments who are responsible for protecting and keeping our environment safe.
1.         INTRODUCTION
The Office of the FSM President is responsible for the administration of all disaster-related Federal programs implemented in the Federated States of Micronesia.  In order to facilitate the management of disaster assistance when the President of the United States declares a “major disaster” or “emergency” in the FSM, the President of FSM appoints his disaster coordinator to act on
his behalf as the Governor’s Authorized Representative (GAR), *and also as the State.
The President’s Disaster Coordinator (PDC) coordinates the disaster-related activities Federal Coordinating Office (FCO), who is appointed by the Associate Director, State &Local, Programs & Support, FEMA, coordinates all the disaster assistance activities in the declared area, including those of the State (FSM National Government), the recipient of the Federal disaster.
Note:  Information contained herein is drawn from other official documents to provide guidance. These data should not be considered a replacement or substitute for applicable laws, rules, regulations, agreements, circulars and other available guidance.
II.        PURPOSE
To provide step-by-step procedures and explanations to facilitate the obtaining, utilizing, and management of disaster assistance available under the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (US PL 93-288).
The FSM National Government is eligible to receive PL 93-288 disaster assistance from the United States Government, through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) * whenever the President of the United States approves FSM’s request for assistance and declares that a “major disaster” or an “emergency” exist in the Federated States of Micronesia and that such assistance is warranted.
*Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the agency of the Federal Government managing all matters pertaining to disasters and emergencies resulting from either natural or man-made cause, including defense of the civilian population during peacetime as well as times or war.  The agency’s national office is located in Washington, D.C., with ten regional offices dispersed all over the country. The program regional offices dispersed all over the country.  FEMA Region IX administers the program of disaster assistance that is extended to the Federated States of Micronesia, with offices located in the Presidio of San Francisco, CA.
The requirements for obtaining disaster assistance are provided under Part IV, Impact/Immediate Response, in the form of checklists for the Governor and the FSM PDC.
Exception:  Procedures and details concerning the Individual and Family Grant Program (IFGP) and the Temporary Housing Assistance Program (THAP) are to be found in the Administrative plan for these two individual assistance programs.  Either or both of these programs may be authorized when there is a “major disaster” declaration.
III.       PREPARATION FOR DISASTERS
When a disaster is identified, certain functions and activities need to be carried out to endure appropriate and adequate preparation and to expedite processing of needed assistance.
A.       Governor of the Threatened State
1.         Receives weather and/or disaster-related information and monitors the same.  
2.         Provides warning to the local populace in accordance with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as the situation requires warning, and,
3.         Provides the FSM President with all disaster-related information available and the activities he has implemented.
B.        The FSM President’s Disaster Coordinator
1.         Receives and analyzes all disaster-related information available, including those received from the threatened State.
2.         Briefs the President and the Vice President, as necessary; and,
3.         Notifies the Director of the Disaster Assistance Program Region IX, Federated Emergency Management Agency, of the current status of the threat the keeps him abreast of the developments thereafter.
IV.       IMPACT/IMMEDIATE RESPONSE
Functions and activities needed to be carried out after a disaster strikes:

A.        Governor
1.         Proclaims that a disaster/emergency exists in the area.
2.         Initiate necessary property and lifesaving operations.
3.         Orders mass care operations (emergency shelters, deeding and medical attention, if necessary)
4.         Relays all disaster-related information to the FSM President (if assistance from the National Government and/or international aid sources are required), as soon as communications becomes available.
5.         Opens designated Disaster Application Center (DAC).
6.                  Requests the FSM President for the National Government’s assistance in arranging for a combined FEMA/State/Local Damage Assessment
7.         Sends summary Damage Assessment Reports to the PDC every six hours until Damage Assessment is completed.
8.         Appoints the FSM PDC as his agent if there is a US Presidential Declaration.
9.         Applies for assistance on behalf of eligible private, nonprofit organizations within his jurisdiction when there is declaration and efforts of the National Government and the FSM State stricken by disaster with the
B.        FSM PDC
1.         Analyzes available disaster-related data, recommends as request for declaration – if warranted – and prepares required documents for the President’s signature.
2.         Requests US Federal assistance through FEMA Region IX.
3.         Supervises and coordinates disaster assistance received from outside sources.
4.         Assumes the role of the Governor’s Authorized Representative (GAAR) and the State Coordinating Officer (SCO) when there is a US Presidential Declaration and coordinates all FSM disaster efforts with the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO).
5.         Prepares for the President’s signature, a request for IFGP, if the Governor of the stricken State specifically expressed requirement for it.
6.         Applies to FEMA for advances/reimbursements as required after a declaration.
7.         Assures adequate record-keeping of disaster-related projects, Federal reimbursements, and grants, and
8.         Arranges for final inspections and FSM & Federal Audits.
C         DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
The immediate, and rapid collection of general information on the nature, severity, location and cost estimates of damages resulting from a disaster.  The assessment is only an estimate, and does not provide a basis for work to be done or for reimbursement, and should not be confused with the detailed Damage Survey Reports (DSR) which are made after a Presidential declaration of an “emergency” or “major disaster” to determine the scope of work and the cost of repair or
1.         Purpose:
a.         to provide systematic procedures to collect, collate, and report assessment of disaster damage.
b.         assist officials of the affected government to determine existing needs and allocate available resources)
c.         assist the FSM PDC to determine what support requirements are or will be available, including possible assistance from agencies outside of the FSM.
d.         provide the FSM President with data to determine whether he should seek a US Presidential Declaration.
e.         in event of a declaration, the damage assessment will be used as a guide to the type and quantities of disaster assistance to be provided by participating agencies.
2.         Responsibilities & Functions
a.         The Governor of the affected State has the responsibility for damage assessment and timely reporting the FSM President.
b.         The Governor appoints a Damage Assessment Officer who supervises the collection and collation of data on sustained damages.
c.         Damage Assessment Team:  To provide sufficient coverage, damage assessment should include the following:
§ Public Works personnel for assessment in the public sector
§ Public Works personnel augmented by trained assessors from other departments or agencies for damage in private sector.
§ Agriculture & Marine Resources officials report on the damages sustained to agriculture and aquaculture projects.
§ Health Services Officials provides casualty and other required reports on injuries.
§ Public & other trained private assessors to assess damages in the business sector.
Note:   These assessors should be designated in advance and trained before the actual disaster takes place.
3.         Federal Involvement:  Damage Assessment & Disaster Assistance.
a.         Immediately following a disaster, the Governor of the stricken State calls for assessment of damages sustained from the disaster.  He sends his request to the FSM President for a combined damage assessment.  Upon approval by the Regional Director, a group of Federal assessors will join t he State & Local assessors and prepare a Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA).
b.         The FSM President submits his request to the President of the United States through FEMA Region IX Director using the PDA as the justification for his request.  (Such request should be completed as early as possible following a disaster).
c.         The President of the United States reviews the request and issues his declaration as either “emergency” or “major disaster” depending upon the severity and magnitude of the disaster.  The President’s declaration will activate specific programs of assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under the provisions of the US PL 93-288, the Disaster.
V.        FEDERAL/FSM COORDINATION
Following the declaration of a disaster area by the President of the United States, the Federal Coordinating Office and his staff will come to the disaster area an establish a Disaster Field Office (DFO). The staff will include a Public Assistance Officer (PAO) and an Individual Assistance Officer (IAO) as well as a cadre of Federal engineers and inspectors who will work with FSM and State designated officials to complete detailed Damage Survey Reports on each area or
The President’s Disaster Coordinator along with other designated personnel from the FSM National Government will visit the disaster area to work with the Federal and the Local work force to ensure a speedy recovery from the impact of the disaster.
VI.       FEDERAL ASSISTANCE AFTER A PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION
A.        General
The FSM government becomes eligible for Federal Disaster Assistance provided under US PL 93-288 after a Presidential declaration of either an “emergency” or a “major disaster” is issued.  FSM State(s) or the recognized units of local government included in the declaration may submit Project Applications (PA) requesting reimbursement for eligible for disaster assistance if they have applied for or currently have in effect from the US Revenue Service, a ruling letter granting tax exemption under Section 501 ©, (d), or (e) of the Internal Revenue Code of
B.        Categories of Eligible Costs
Only certain costs incurred in emergencies or in major disaster operations are eligible for reimbursement.  The following paragraphs described those specific items, which are clearly eligible or ineligible.
1.         Salaries, Wages, & Administrative Expenses
a.         Eligible
Salaries and wages (including overtime) of regular and extra employees of the applicant directly engaged in the performance of eligible disaster work, except as noted below.  However, only gross salaries and wages will be reimbursed and the applicant will be responsible for all other payroll costs.
b.         Ineligible
Regular salaries of regularly employed policemen and firemen and other employees whose duties do not change because of the disaster, such as levee patrollers, pumping plant operations, weather services personnel, and building inspectors.
Administrative expenses including salaries, wages and expenses of the National, State, and Local officials who are responsible for directing regular governmental activities.
Salaries, wages, fees and expenses of individuals or firms while engaged in the preparation and processing of project applicants, claim for payment, and supporting documentation, including costs of damage estimates.
Other ineligible costs includes related legal fees, office supplies and equipment, rent, telephone and telegraph expenses, interest charges, employer’s share of payroll additives over and above the employee’s gross pay.
2.         Costs for Equipment, Supplies & Materials
a.         Eligible
Costs for materials and supplies consumed in eligible disaster work, including those procured by direct purchase or taken from applicant’s stock.
Rental costs of privately owned equipment used in performing eligible disaster work, provided rental rates are comparable to the going rates for the same or similar equipment in the costs incurred in the operation of applicant equipment in eligible disaster work.  Such costs will be based on the FEMA Schedule of Approved Equipment Rates of a Public Entity.  A schedule may be obtained from the FEMA FCO for the usual types of equipment used during disaster operations.  This schedule has been developed from historical records for costs of owning and operating equipment throughout the country.  The schedule covers all costs eligible under PL 93-288 for ownership and operation of publicly owned equipment except labor costs of operators. In includes depreciation, all repairs, fuel lubricants, tires and other operating costs of a similar nature.  The schedule does not cover insurance, equipment shelters, overhead and similar nature.  The schedule does not cover insurance, equipment shelter, overhead and administrative costs.  If an applicant uses equipment, which is not listed on the above schedule, he should submit the make, model, horsepower and original cost of the equipment to the Regional Director who will furbish the allowable rate.
b.         Ineligible
Costs for transportation equipment utilized by police and other employees whose duties do not change because of the disaster are not eligible.
Costs of hand tools (shovels, handsaws, hammers, etc.), personal equipment and protective clothing used in performing eligible work.
Charges for insurance, storage, overhead and administrative costs.
3.         Costs for Work Performed by Contract
a.         Eligible
Reasonable costs for work performed by private contractors on eligible projects contracted for in accordance with National or State status.  If competitive bidding procedures were not followed, justification will be required as part of the documentation accompanying the voucher.
b.         Ineligible
Costs incurred under contracts based on cost plus percentage of cost basis, except when approved by the Department.  Costs incurred under contracts based o contingency clauses.  No Contract entered into by an applicant for disaster work or services under the Act shall contain a provision, which makes the payment for such work contingent upon reimbursement under the Act.
Costs incurred under contracts performed by contractors whose names appear on the FEMA Consolidated List of Debarred, Suspended and Ineligible Contractors will not be reimbursed unless it has been determined by the Associate Director, on an individual contract basis, that it is in the best interest of the Government.
4.         Costs for Work Performed by Arrangement between Government Agencies
a.         Eligible
Costs for work performed under arrangements between States of the FSM, but limited to the direct costs of the performing State Government, which would be eligible if the applicant had performed the work. Appropriate work supervision and record-keeping by the applicant and the performing State Government are necessary to identify eligible work and to
b.         Ineligible
Costs for work performed under arrangements between the FSM National Government and the State Government and a Federal Agency, except where approved by the Regional Director, FEMA, Region IX.
5.         Costs for Lands, Easements and Rights of Way.
All costs incurred for lands, easements or rights of way are ineligible, except in unusual circumstances involving relocation of a facility when approved by the Associate Director, State & Local, Programs & Support, FEMA.
6.         Costs for Work Performed by Service Fraternal and other similar Organizations, which do not normally contract their services for disaster relief.
a.         Eligible
Only out-of-pocket costs for equipment, materials and supplies used or consumed in the performance of eligible work.  This could include the FEMA rate for operating group member’s equipment.
b.         Ineligible
Wages or salaries of member personnel engaged in disaster relief activities.
7.         Prison Labor
a.         Eligible
Out-of-pocket costs to an eligible applicant of prison labor performing eligible disaster work, including the amount paid the prisoners in including the amount paid the prisoners in accordance with rates established prior to the disaster, and the cost of transportation.
b.         Ineligible
Costs of food, lodging and guards.  Also, any costs for prison labor utilized by a contractor.
8.         Costs for Vector Control & Fixed Pumping
a.         Eligible
Costs, which are not a normal recurring item on an annual basis.  When such costs are a normal recurring item, excess of such costs (including FEMA equipment rates) over the average cost for the same period of time during the previous three years will be considered eligible.  Items 1 thru 7 above.  For permanently installed pumping equipment, the applicant may be required by the FEMA Regional Director, to submit additional information on the pumping operation.
b.         Ineligible
Any repairs of fixed pumping equipment required as a result of pumping operations.
9.         Damage Survey Reports (DSRs)
As mentioned earlier in this text, a DSR must be completed for each area and facility which is damaged and for which reimbursement is anticipated.  DSR is the basic accounting document, which when completed must be signed by the Federal and Applicant officials involved and forwarded to the PDC for inclusion in the Project Application.
10.       Project Application (PA)
The President’s Disaster Coordinator, as agent for the applicant, submits a PA for emergency and permanent work.  Along with it, he submits the documents, which appoints his as agent.  (See FEMA/STATE agreements)
Supplements to add additional line items to the PA must comply with the same timetable applicable to the PA for which the supplement is submitted.  Supplemental requests to increase the cost of work must be submitted as soon as possible. If, in performing the work, it is determined that t he cost of work in a line item will exceed the amount approved in the PA, the applicant official assigned management responsibility must provide the FSM PDC data as
1.         The exact work performed or to be performed.
2.         The cost originally approved
3.         The actual cost of each project with a list of materials
4.         The reason for the increase.
11.       Specific Programs
Specific programs of assistance, available after a Presidential declaration, are listed under sections of Individual & Public Assistance.
VII.     INDIVIDUAL ASSISTANCE
A.        Individual assistance such as mass care operations to save lives and property are considered to be the responsibility of the Local Government (FSM State) with jurisdiction over the stricken area and must begin as soon as t he need is identified.  The Federal authorities involved will look to the Local government, assisted by the International Red Cross or other Voluntary Organizations, to conduct individual assistance operations and will assist only if it is determined that
B.        When there is a “major disaster” or “emergency” declaration, certain individual assistance programs are available to provide assistance. Such programs as the Temporary Housing Assistance/Minimal Repair Program, and the Individual & Family Grant Program can be requested to provide assistance.  Assistance for home loans may be available from the Small Business Administration.
1.         Specifics on the THAP/MRP and the IFG can be found in the Administrative Plans for these programs.
VIII.    PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
A.        Public Assistance under “Emergency” Declaration
1.         Federal technical assistance and/or advisory personnel are available to assist a disaster stricken government to perform essential community services, which includes warning of further risks and hazards, public information, assistance in health and safety programs, technical advice on management, control, and reduction of immediate threat to public health and safety.
2.         Federal agencies may make Federal equipment, supplies, personnel, and other resources (other than extension of credit) available to a disaster stricken government.  This includes the lending or donating of surplus Federal equipment and supplies.
3.         FEMA may provide funds for emergency debris clearance limited to that necessary to save lives, protect, and maintain public safety. Such assistance includes clearing debris from roads and facilities as necessary for the performance of emergency tasks and for the restoration of essential services.
4.         FEMA may provide funds for a feeding program for the population of a stricken area when the means of growing and harvesting have been destroyed or temporarily disrupted (a protective measure).
5.         FEMA may provide funds for restoration of emergency repairs to essential utilities and facilities as necessary to insure their continued operation. For example:  emergency bridgework, road repairs and detours, utility tie-ins with neighboring utilities and emergency building repairs.
6.         FEMA may provide temporary communications during or in anticipation of a declared emergency and may make these communications available to an affected jurisdiction until essential emergency communications needs are met.
7.         FEMA may provide funds for the cost of emergency public transportation to government offices, supply centers, stores, post offices, schools, major employment centers, and such other places as may be necessary to enable the community to resume its normal pattern of life in the affected area.
B.        Public Assistance under a “Major Disaster” Declaration
1.         In addition to all assistance available under an “emergency” declaration, FEMA may provide funds to help restore, reconstruct or replace damaged facilities including those under construction at the time of disaster.
2.         FEMA may also make contributions to help private, non-profit educational, utility, emergency, medical, and custodial facilities (including those for the aged and disabled) damaged or destroyed by a “major disaster”.
3.         The US PL 93-288, under which this assistance is available, authorizes loans to any local government, which has suffered a substantial loss of tax, and other revenues as a result of a major disaster occurred.
4.         FEMA may provide additional assistance for economic recovery after the period of emergency aid and replacement of essential facilities and services to and declared “major disaster” area which has suffered a disruption of the economy of sufficient severity to
a.         assistance in planning and development to replace expertise lost in the disaster.
b.         Continued coordination of assistance available under Federal aid programs; and,
c.         Continued assistance towards the restoration of an employment base.
5.         Additional assistance may also be provided for disaster recover, planning, grants and loans for public works and development facilities, loan guaranteed and technical assistance.  The FSM President in consultation with the Governor of a stricken State will determine the need for such additional assistance.
C.        Other Assistance Available After Emergency or Major Disaster Declaration.
1.         Direct Federal Assistance – is usually requested under unusual circumstances where the work required is beyond the capability of the stricken government to do or contract and is therefore requested to be performed by Federal personnel.
a.         No financial transactions are necessary for this type of assistance.  The PDC receives or prepares the certified request and submit to FEMA no later than 30 days following an emergency declaration or 90 days following a major disaster declaration.
b.         The applicant is responsible to assist the performing Federal agencies in all support and local logistical matters in the same manner, as would a private owner in his relationship to a performing contractor. These matters include the securing of local building permits and rights of entry, control of traffic in the interest of safety and public welfare, and all other matters relating to compliance with local building or construction laws and ordinances.
c.         The applicant must accept the design before work begins and must signify acceptance of the completed work at the time of the joint final inspection.  The applicant provides, without cost to the Federal government, all land easements and rights of way necessary to accomplishment of the approved work and must agree to indemnify the Federal government against any claims arising from the work.
d.         The Governor for the stricken area may through the FSM PDC, any Federal equipment that may be required.  He is responsible for managing and distributing any equipment received.
D.        Types of Grants
All grants are made only after the applicant performs the work approved in the Project Application and supplements.
1.         Categorical grant
The most commonly used when the approved amount of the PA is $25,000 or more.  It is used for debris clearance, and other emergency work, and also permanent repairs or replacements on public facilities including those facilities under construction, as well as private non-profit facilities.
2.         Grant-in-Lieu
May be requested if the applicant wishes to build in a different location, or a large and more elaborate replacement.  The amount of the grant-in-lieu, if approved, will be that estimated by FEMA to repair or replace the pre-disaster structure or facility.  The structure can be relocated into a different area but no land costs are allowed to be reimbursed.
3.         Flexible Funding
A type of grant, which equals 90% of the Federal estimate of the total cost of repairing or replacing, all damaged facilities owned by the applicant within the disaster area.  If granted, the money used to repair or replace certain new facilities, which the applicant determines to be necessary to meet his need for governmental functions or services in the disaster area.  The FSM PDC and the Director of the Disaster Assistance Program, Region IX, FEMA must approve projects to be completed under flexible funding.
4.         Small Projects
A type of grant, which the total cost, is less than $25,000 dollars.
E.        Time Limitations for Project Completion
The time limitations are measured from the date of declaration and will terminate as indicated below:
1.         Major Disaster declaration
Request
           Completion                                         Deadline                                  Deadline
           a. Debris Clearance                            30 days                                    180 days
           b. Emergency Measures                     30 days                                    180 days
           c. Permanent Restoration (ASAP)     18 months
Note:  Director, Disaster Assistance Program, Region IX, may require a completion schedule for his approval.
2.  Emergency Declaration
a.  Work should begin immediately after the disaster and must be completed in 30 days.
F.         Categories of Eligible Work
Category         A.        Debris Clearance
B.        Protective Measures
C.        Road Systems
D.        Water Control Facilities
E.         Public Buildings & Related Equipment
F.         Public Utilities
G.        Facilities Under Construction
H.        Private Non-Profit Facilities
I.          Others (not in any category above)
G.        Managing Accounts for Public Assistance
1.         When a disaster occurs in the FSM, the Budget Officer, FSM National Government establishes a disaster account, e.g. FXXXXXXXX, per the request of t he FSM PDC.  This action is reported to the stricken State by telex and the required FSM Allotment Form. IF IFGP is authorized, a separate account is set up exclusively for this program.
2.         IF Federal funds are to be available, the FSM PDC working with the designated Project Manager, compiles and publishes a Chart of Accounts wherein disaster related projects are assigned numbers.  All documents relating to a particular project will be identified by the number assigned to the project, e.g. FXXXXXXXX – 101, FXXXXXXXX- 102, etc.  Each Category is assigned a different classification number, e.g. Category A Debris.
The FSM PDC ensures that Federal funds are advanced in accordance with FEMA regulations to meet expenses of the disaster.  Request for Advance is submitted to and coordinated with the Director, DAP, FEMA, Region IX, and is made payable to the appropriate disaster account.  When the request for advance is approved, the funds are wire-transferred into the established accounts and then released to the stricken State for obligation, through allotments from the FSM Budget Office.
3.         Funds Status Reports and Project Status Reports cued to the items of the Chart of Accounts, are prepared by the affected State Government Disaster Project Manager and forwarded to the FSM PDC who reports to the Federal Grants Section.
4.         When all projects are completed, inspected and audited to the total FEMA approved sum less the sum of advances, and less the sum of then State share of the costs, the balance of which will be paid by FEMA to the FSM Budget Office for appropriate.
5.         In the event that the request for assistance is denied, or that the project is not eligible for assistance, then the Governor of the affected State must decide which of his operation accounts will absorb the charges which have been made to the “disaster” account(s) and communicate his decision to the Secretary of Finance, who will then journal voucher all charges to the designated accounts of that State.
H.        Record Keeping
A.  General
Careful, systematic and accurate record keeping will result in full reimbursement of all FEMA approved costs on eligible projects. Without proper records however, reimbursements will not be made.
B.  Damage Survey Reports
1.  As mentioned earlier, the DSR prepared by Federal and Local (FSM State) personnel who visit and survey each project site, is basic to record keeping.  It contains the best possible estimate of the scope and cost of work to be done to rectify the damage.  It identifies the specific work items for which reimbursement can be expected.
2.   The affected FSM State must designate a Project Manager to coordinate the work required to maintain a file on each DSR and from the outset accumulate all documents relating to a particular DSR in its own file.  The Project Manager should prepare the required reports (see below) and submit to the PDC to ensure periodic follow-up and maintenance of all projects on current status.
a.         As an example, if work is contracted out, the file on that project should contain copies of request to bid, the bid documents, the contract which is let, invoices submitted by the contractor, warrants authorizing check issuances, and checks issued payments.
b.         If the work is done by the personnel of the affected government (force account), the file should contain extracts of payroll (time and attendance reports) with cross reference to the originals, a schedule of the equipment used on a particular job, invoices, warrants, purchase orders, job orders, requisitions, journal vouchers, and checks issued to pay for materials used on the job.
3.      Since labor, equipment, and materials must be documented, it is recommended that a Daily Activity Report (DAR) for each DSR be maintained as well as a Summary of Daily Activities Reports (SDAR) to provide current status of the work on each DSR. A final inspection is usually needed whenever the claim amount of the FEMA reimbursement exceeds $10,000 dollars or by the expressed wishes of the Regional Director.
I.          Cost Overruns
Good record keeping will insure early identification of cost overruns.  Early reports to the FSM PDC concerning any cost overruns will enable him to file timely supplemental requests to cover the costs of such overruns.  Reports for cost overruns should contain a full explanation will be useful in facilitating the overruns.
J.         Audits
Site audits are to be conducted by the FSM National & State governments to ensure the proper use of approved funding.  The combined teams of Federal auditor, and the FSM Internal Auditor and his staff will conduct a final audit.
P.O. Box KUA
Kosrae State, FM 96944 Micronesia
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